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Syria

Border countries: Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey

Syria is currently engaged in a series of armed conflicts. First, the Syrian government is engaged in several non-international armed conflicts against a wide array of rebel groups. Second, there is arguably an international armed conflict between Syria and members of the US-led international coalition and Turkey. There is arguably a military occupation of parts of northern Syria by Turkey. Finally, part of Syrian territory, the Golan Heights, is occupied by Israel.

Syria is currently a party to a series of armed conflicts.

 

  • Since September 2014, Syria is also involved in an international armed conflict with the international coalition led by the United States because they have been targeting the Islamic State group on Syrian territory without the latter's consent. Identical Letters Dated 17 September 2015 From the Permanent Representative of the Syrian Arab Republic to the United Nations Addressed to the Secretary General and the President of the Security Council, UN doc S/2015/719, 21 September 2015. Currently, the coalition led by the United States includes Australia, Belgium, Germany, France, Jordan, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and the United Kingdom. Turkey became a party to the international armed conflict with Syria in July 2015 after it launched its first airstrikes against Islamic State group targets in Syria.

 

  • Part of Syria's territory is currently occupied by Turkey.

 

 

  • Part of Syrian territory, the Golan Heights remain occupied by Israel. The non-international armed conflicts have repeatedly spilled over into the Golan Heights, leading to violations of the 1974 Disengagement of Armed Forces Agreement by the Syrian and Israeli armed forces. See for example Report of the Secretary General on the United Nations Disengagement Force for the Period from 2 March to 16 May 2017, UN doc S/2017/486, 8 June 2017; Report of the Secretary General on the United Nations Disengagement Force for the Period from 1 March to 20 May 2016, UN doc S/2016/520, 8 June 2016. In August 2014, Jabhat Fatah al-Sham, formerly known as Jabhat al-Nusra, abducted 45 peacekeepers from the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force in the Golan Heights and released them unharmed on September 11. See Report of the Secretary General on the United Nations Disengagement Force for the Period from 4 September to 19 November 2014, UN doc S/2014/859, 28 November 2014, §4. In response to cross-border attacks from non-state armed groups, but also to prevent the transfer of advanced weaponry to Hezbollah, Israel has repeatedly carried out missile and airstrikes inside Syrian territory, leading to a series of distinct short-lived international armed conflicts. See A. Bellal (ed), The War Report: Armed Conflict in 2014, Oxford University Press 2014, p 57 ff. Examples include the downing of a Syrian warplane that had entered the airspace of the Golan Heights in September 2014, see ‘Israel Shoots Down Syrian Warplane’, CBS/Associated Press, 23 September 2014; the bombing of Syrian army positions in March 2014, December 2014, and September 2015, see L. Smith-Spark and M. Schwartz, ‘Israel Retaliates in Syria After Roadside Bomb Attack Against Israeli Troops’, CNN, 19 March 2014; P. Beaumont, ‘Israeli Jets Bomb Syria, Says Damascus’, The Guardian, 7 December 2014; ‘Israel Strikes Syria After Rockets Land in Golan’, Al Jazeera, 28 September 2015; and a series of bombings believed to aim to prevent the transfer of advanced weaponry to Hezbollah, for example in March 2013 and in November 2016, see ‘Israel Bombs Hezbollah-bound Missiles in Syria: Official’, Reuters, 4 May 2013; ‘Israeli Airstrikes Hit Damascus Outskirts, Syrian Reports Says’, The Guardian/Associated Press, 30 November 2016.
Last updated: Tuesday 12th September 2017