India is involved in a non-international armed conflict on its territory with the Naxalites. The tensions with Pakistan over the status of Kashmir regularly cause armed clashes leading to an international armed conflict. Furthermore, clashes between India and China amounted to an international armed conflict in 2020.
India is currently involved in a series of armed conflicts.
- First, India is currently involved in a non-international armed conflict on its territory with the Communist Party of India – Maoist, also known as the Naxalites.
- Second, the status of Kashmir continues to be a source of conflict between India and Pakistan. Pakistani and Indian forces engage in regular skirmishes across the Line of Control, the ceasefire line established by the 1972 Simla Agreement. In 2016, heavy shelling forced more than 35,000 people to flee and caused the death of at least 83 soldiers and civilians. Conflict Barometer 2016, Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research, 2017, p 16. In May 2017, heavy shelling from the Pakistani Army reportedly led to the evacuation of 1700 people along the Line of Control. ‘Pak Shelling Dislocates 1,700 from LoC Areas’, The Times of India, 16 May 2017. India also accuses Pakistan of supporting Pakistani based militants who undertake attacks in the zone controlled by India, such as raid in 2016 that left 19 Indian soldiers dead or an October 2017 attack against a regional airport. India responds to such attacks with strikes against militant camps in Pakistan. S. Yasir and J. Gettleman, 'Kashmir Is Rattled by Bold Attack Near Fortified Airport', The New York Times, 3 October 2017; H. Kumar and G. Anand, '17 Indian Soldiers Killed by Militants in Kashmir', The New York Times, 18 September 2016.
- Furthermore, in 2020 India and China have been involved in an international armed conflict over the control of two main regions: Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai Chin, which is considered as part of Xingjian and Tibet by China, while according to India it is part of Ladakh. M. Safi and H. Ellis-Petersen, ‘India says 20 soldiers killed on disputed Himalayan border with China’, The Guardian, 17 June 2020.