Egypt is involved in a non-international armed conflict against Wilayat Sinai, an armed non-State actor that has pledged loyalty to the Islamic State group. Furthermore, it is involved in the non-international armed conflicts in Yemen as part of the Saudi-led coalition and is involved in the non-international armed conflict on its territory.
Egypt is party to a number of armed conflicts:
- The Government of Egypt is involved in a non-international armed conflict with the Wilayat Sinai armed group in the Sinai Peninsula. In 2014, the group pledged allegiance to the Islamic State (IS) and changed its name in Wilayat Sinai (the Sinai Peninsula). The new allegiance led to an increase in both the scale and complexity of attacks, indicating strong affiliation and cooperation with IS leadership and the possession of more advanced weaponry. Moreover, Israel has conducted air strikes against Wilayat Sinai in Egypt with the consent of the Egyptian Government. The involvement of Israel does not affect the classification as it is taking place with the consent of Egypt.
- As a member of the Saudi-led coalition that initiated airstrikes in March 2015 upon request of the Yemeni President Hadi, Egypt is a party to the non-international armed conflicts in Yemen. For further information on who is a party, see 'contemporary challenges -who is a party?' in our classification section. In September 2015, Egypt sent ground troops to Yemen. 'Yemen Air Strikes: A Guide to the Countries Backing Saudi Arabia’ Associated Press, 10 April 2015. ‘Egypt Sends Up to 800 Ground Troops to Yemen’s War – Egyptian Security Sources’ , Reuters, 9 September 2015, but claims that its troops are only present for peacekeeping purposes. See Final Report of the Panel of Experts on Yemen Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 2140 (2014), UN doc S/2017/81, para 29. In January 2017, Egypt announced the extension of its participation in the coalition. 'Egypt Extends Participation in Yemen Conflict', Reuters, 22 January 2017.
- During 2015 and 2017, Egypt launched airstrikes against the Islamic State group and other Islamist groups in Libya in 2015 and 2017 in response to the killings of Coptic Christians. Egypt supports the self-declared Libyan National Army of General Haftar and it does not appear that the Government of National Accord consented to these airstrikes. See A. Aboulenein, 'Egypt Launches Air Raids on Libya After Christians Killed', Reuters, 25 May 2017; J. Malsin and C. Stephen, 'Egyptian Air Strikes in Libya Kill Dozens of Isis Militants', The Guardian, 17 February 2015. On the relevance of consent see 'contemporary challenges for classification - relevance of consent' in our classification section. On the threshold for an international armed conflict, see 'international armed conflict - a low threshold' in our classification section. If undertaken without consent, these airstrikes amount to short-lived international armed conflicts.