Browse » Conflicts » Non-international armed conflict in the Central African Republic

Non-international armed conflict in the Central African Republic

Conflict type: Non-international armed conflict

Central African Republic is involved in a non-international armed conflict against a wide array of rebel groups, notably ex-Séléka and anti-Balaka groups. The government is supported by United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Mission (MINUSCA) and previously by France in its efforts to bring peace and stability throughout the country. There are also parallel non-international armed conflicts between different armed groups.

There are multiple and overlapping non-international armed conflicts taking place in Central African Republic.

  • The Government of Central African Republic, which took over from the transitional government set up pursuant to the coup d’état by the leader of the Séléka armed group in 2013. It is involved in non-international armed conflicts against a wide array of rebel groups, including the anti-Balaka armed group and the ex-Séléka armed groups, namely groups that splintered from the Séléka armed group coalition. There are also parallel non-international armed conflicts due to the infighting between various armed groups.
  • The United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Mission in Central African Republic (MINUSCA), rehatted from African-led International Support Mission in September 2014, supports the government in stabilizing the country, expanding governmental control outside the capital, and securing main humanitarian and trade routes. Recently, the degree of violence between MINUSCA and a number of armed groups reached the threshold required for a non-international armed conflict.
  • France, which deployed the Operation Sangaris in the aftermath of the 2013 coup, undertook military operations against the armed groups. Since end of 2016, it has ended its military mission and scaled down its support to only provision of trainings and technical assistance though EU Military Training Mission in Central African Republic.

Central African Republic has yet to spend a peaceful decade since its independence in 1960, as a result of repetitive coup d’états and armed strife among various armed groups. The most recent wave of conflicts was initiated by a coalition of armed factions, known as Séléka, in December 2012. In spite of the adoption of the Libreville Agreements on 11 January 2013, the armed violence continued, leading to a coup by the Séléka in March 2013. By May 2013, the armed group reached political and military control over the entire country. See ‘Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in the Central African Republic’, S/2013/261, 3 May 2013. Nevertheless, this circumstance did not led to the end of armed violence. Specifically, Central African Republic has been affected by non-international armed conflicts among various armed groups and against the government and its supporter MINUSCA. France was also involved in the armed conflict in support of the government until end of 2016, when it wound down Operation Sangaris. See ‘Central African Republic profile – Timeline’, BBC, 1 August 2018; D. Smith, ‘Christian militias take bloody revenge on Muslims in Central African Republic’, The Guardian, 10 March 2014.

Two criteria need to be assessed in order to answer the question whether a situation of armed violence amounts to a non-international armed conflict.

  • First, the level of armed violence must reach a certain degree of intensity that goes beyond internal disturbances and tensions.
  • Second, in every non-international armed conflict, at least one side to the conflict must be a non-state armed group which must exhibit a certain level of organization in order to qualify as a party to the non-international armed conflict. Government forces are presumed to satisfy the criteria of organization. For further information, see ‘non-international armed conflict’ in our classification section.

Intensity of violence

Various indicative factors are used to assess whether a given situation has met the required intensity threshold, such as the number, duration, and intensity of individual confrontations; the types of weapons and military equipment used; the number of persons and types of forces participating in the fighting; the number of casualties; the extent of material destruction; the number of civilians fleeing; and the involvement of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). For further information, see ‘non-international armed conflict – intensity of violence’ in our classification section.

The non-international armed conflict in Central African Republic commenced in December 2012, as the Séléka armed group started fighting against the government. See ‘ICRC Annual Report 2012’, p. 111. The armed violence led to the overthrown of the latter in less than four months. Following the coup, the leader of the Séléka armed group, Michel Djotodia, assumed power and was sworn in as a legitimate president of the transitional government on 18 August 2013. Soon thereafter, in September 2013, President Djotodia disbanded the Séléka armed group. However, former members of the group continued to engage in acts of violence. As a reaction to the continuous attacks against the Christian community by the ex-Séléka group, the anti-Balaka group emerged as a self-defence militia, with the aim of defending the non-Muslim communities. As the escalation of violence continued, the African-led International Support Mission in the Central African Republic (MISCA) and French Operation Sangaris were deployed to stabilize the situation. As these forces took control of the capital, Bangui, the armed conflict between the ex-Séléka and the anti-Balaka armed groups moved to other parts of the country, causing countless civilians deaths and more than a million displaced. Following the appointment of President Catherine Samba-Panza to head the transitional government in September 2014, the conflict relatively deescalated. See ‘Central African Republic profile – Timeline’, BBC, 1 August 2018; D. Smith, ‘Christian militias take bloody revenge on Muslims in Central African Republic’, The Guardian, 10 March 2014; ‘Central African Republic crisis: War crimes committed – UN’, BBC, 6 June 2014.

Since September 2016, confrontations and attacks by armed groups have become once again more intensified, with the government, supported by MINUSCA, struggling to re-strengthen the Central African Republic Army/Forces Armées Centrafricaines (FACA) and extend its control beyond the capital. The disintegrated ex-Séléka armed groups, anti-Balaka armed groups and other newly established groups continue armed violence in provincial parts of the country as they fight to maintain or expand their territorial control. The independent expert on Human Rights reported that in some cases ethnic and religious communities are also attacked because of their perceived affiliation with certain armed groups. See ‘Amnesty International’s country report 2017/2018’; Human Rights Council, ‘Report of the Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in the Central African Republic’, A/HRC/36/64, 28 July 2017.

The International Crisis Group has reported that since late 2016 two ex-Séléka factions, the Union for Peace in the Central African Republic (UPC) and Popular Front for the Rebirth of Central African Republic (FPRC), have been fighting to extend their territorial control over parts of Haute-Kotto, Ouaka, and Mbomou resulting in displacement of more than 53,000 people. This was due to failure of agreements signed between the two groups to delineate and share out territories, such as the Mbrès accord and the November 2016 deal to end the crisis in Haute-Kotto. The report also indicates that, when this fighting got close to Bambari, the second biggest city in Central African Republic, MINUSCA successfully negotiated the departure of UPC from the city. See Human Rights Council, ‘Report of the Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in the Central African Republic’, A/HRC/36/64, 28 July 2017; International Crisis Group, ‘Avoiding the worst in Central African Republic’, Report no. 253/Africa, 28 September 2017; B. Sixdenier, ‘The who’s who in Central African Republic’, Medium, 15 June 2017; Council on Foreign Relations, ‘Violence in the Central African Republic’. The United Nations (UN) Secretary General reported to the UN Security Council that the Return, Reclamation and Rehabilitation (3R) group repeatedly clashed with anti-Balaka armed group in Bocaranga, Koui, and Ndim in Ouham-Pendé prefecture. Accordingly, MINUSCA strengthened its presence in these area during late September 2016. The Mouvement Patriotique Centrafricain (MPC), aligned with the Révolution et justice group, clashed with groups affiliated to anti-Balaka between 11 and 13 November of the same year, in the areas of Bozoum, Gouzé and Paoua, forcing inhabitants of 25 villages to flee. See ‘Report of the Secretary-General on the Central African Republic’, S/2018/125, 15 February 2018.

In 2017, FPRC created a coalition with the Rassemblement Patriotique pour le Renouveau de la Centrafrique (RPRC) and the anti-Balaka wing led by Maxime Mokom (associated with François Bozizé) and continued fighting with UPC in prefectures of Basse-Kotto, Mbomou, and Haut-Mbomou killing more than 23 civilians. The coalition also attacked UPC’s stronghold in Bangassou, Alindao and Bria. These attacks left more than 100 dead and 15,000 displaced. On 15 April 2017, UPC reportedly attacked the locality of Zémio, in Haut-Mbomou prefecture, as well as the MINUSCA base in the vicinity. For further information, see Human Rights Council, ‘Report of the Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in the Central African Republic’, A/HRC/36/64, 28 July 2017; International Crisis Group, ‘Avoiding the worst in Central African Republic’, Report no. 253/Africa, 28 September 2017; MINUSCA, ‘Report on the Human Rights Situationin the Central African Republic (CAR) from 1 April 2016 to 31 March 2017’; ‘“Around 100 killed” in CAR's Bria despite truce deal’, Al Jazeera, 21 June 2017.

Amnesty international reported that, in June 2017, FPRC elements attacked anti-Balaka positions in Nzako, leaving at least 18 civilians dead, and in Bria, where over 80 civilians were killed. In response, shortly thereafter anti-Balaka armed group attacked Muslim neighbourhoods in Zemio town, and killed more than 22 civilians. In July 2017, clashes between other splinter groups from ex-Séléka and anti-Balaka armed group occurred in Kaga-Bandoro, Nana-Gribizi province, Batangafo, and Gambo towns, resulting in more than 50 civilian fatalities and displacement of 24,000 people. See ‘Amnesty International’s country report 2017/2018’.

The Return, Reclamation and Rehabilitation (3R) armed group occupies Ouham Pende region near Cameroon border areas. In May 2017, 3R attacked Niem-Yelewa and occupied it for 12 days, until MINUSCA forces pushed the armed group out. This armed groups, which claims to protect Peuhl community, has displaced around 30, 000 from Ouhan Pende since 2016. See Terrorism Research and Analysis Consortium, ‘Return, Reclamation and Rehabilitation’; ‘Dozens of civilians killed in CAR violence - HRW’, Al Jazeera, 2 May 2017.

Although in the first few months of 2018 the conflict seemed to deescalate, a number of armed confrontations occurred in April and May. Notably, MINUSCA forces have been suffering from recurrent attacks from members of anti-Balaka groups, as well as splinters from the ex-Séléka members in different parts of the country. In April and May 2017, MINUSCA was attacked by anti-Balaka forces in Bangassou and Yogofongo, where more than 10 peacekeepers were killed. See S. Lamzouwaq, ‘Who are Anti-Balaka, Militia killing Moroccan Peacekeepers in Central African Republic?’, Morocco World News, 28 July 2017.

In March 2018, anti-Balaka forces attacked MINUSCA checkpoint at the entrance of Bria’s largest IDP camp, home to almost 35,000 people, and killed one MINUSCA police officer, while three peacekeepers – two Mauritanians and one Zambian – were injured. See ‘Targeted attack results in the death of MINUSCA peacekeeper in Bria’, MINUSCA Press Release, 4 December 2017. On 3 April 2018, an unknown number of anti-Balaka forces, who were heavily armed with AK-47s and artisanal weapons, attacked the MINUSCA temporary base in Tagbara village, located 60 km northeast of Bambari, in Ouaka prefecture. MINUSCA military and police members and anti-Balaka forces engaged in intense exchanges of fire for about two hours, during which one blue helmet was killed, 11 other peacekeepers were wounded and more than 22 anti-Balaka members were killed. See ‘MINUSCA condemns loss of life in overnight attack in Tagbara’MINUSCA Press Release, 3 April 2018.

Organization

A series of indicative factors are used to assess whether armed groups exhibit the required degree of organization, such as the existence of a command structure and disciplinary rules and mechanisms, the ability to procure, transport, and distribute arms, the ability to plan, coordinate and carry out military operations, the ability to negotiate and conclude agreements, e.g. cease fire or peace agreements. If the criterion of a minimum organization of the armed group is not fulfilled, there is no armed conflict. See 'non-international armed conflict - organization' in our classification section.

In 2012, a coalition of armed factions from the northern part of Central African Republic, known as Séléka, started fighting against the government. The continued attack by the Séléka and later ex-Séléka armed group on the non-Muslim community in the country resulted in the establishment of the self-defence armed group: the anti-Balaka. The latter continued fighting against the members of the ex-Séléka armed group. While the deployment of the international peacekeeping mission and the French intervention managed to free the capital, Bangui, they did not succeed in halting clashes among armed groups in other areas of the country. Currently, a multitude of armed groups operate in different areas, sometimes cooperating with each other, sometimes fighting each other. See B. Sixdenier, ‘The who’s who in Central African Republic’, Medium, 15 June 2017; Global Security, ‘Union for Peace in the Central African Republic’; UNSC Meeting Records, 8187th meeting, S/PV.8187, 22 February 2018.

Séléka/ Ex-Séléka coalition group

Séléka armed group was established in 2012 by the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity (UFDR) in coalition with other armed groups operating in northern Central African Republic. For further information, see Y. Weyns, L. Hoex, F. Hilgert, S. Spittaels, ‘Mapping Conflict Motives: the Central African Republic’, Antwerp, November 2014. In March 2013 it succeeded in overthrowing the president. In September 2013 Michael Djotodia, leader of Séléka, became the president of Central African Republic transitional government. Under international pressure, he decided to disband the armed group and declared that only the FACA (Forces Armées Centrafricaines) were the legitimate armed forces in the country. Although a number of ex Séléka members were integrated into the FACA, others continued attacking the non-Muslim communities in Bangui and its surrounding areas until they were repulsed by international intervention. Consequently, ex-Séléka armed group started splitting into several factions, each controlling some parts of the country. See Global Security, ‘Union for Peace in the Central African Republic’; N. Dukhan, ‘Splintered Warfare: Alliances, affiliations, and agendas of armed factions and politico-military groups in the Central African Republic’, The Enough Project, 10 August 2017.

Popular Front for the Renaissance in the Central African Republic (FPRC)

The Popular Front for the Renaissance in Central African Republic (FPRC) is a breakaway armed group from ex-Séléka. It is a coalition of rebels dominated by Muslims from the Gula and Runga communities and is led by Noureddine Adam, who was the second in command of Séléka armed group under Micheal Djotodia. On 14 December 2015, Noureddine Adam proclaimed the independence of the northern part of Central African Republic, which he called the Republic of Logone. The act was fiercely opposed by the transitional government and has never been recognised internationally. By August 2017, the FPRC had strong military hold in Birao, Ndélé, Bria, and Kaga-Bandoro, in central and north eastern Central African Republic. FPRC has created loose alliance with the Rassemblement Patriotique pour le Renouveau de la Centrafrique (RPRC, which is another ex-Séléka splinter group), the Mouvement Patriotique Centrafricain (MPC), and the anti-Balaka/Mokom wing on July 2016, known as “the Coalition.” See Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED), ‘Central African Republic – June 2017 Update’.

The main political agenda or FPRC and the members of its coalition is to replace the central government and to regain political power. Alternatively, they aim at seceding and establishing their own state with Bambari as their capital. Their short-term goal is to obtain general amnesty of their leaders and members of their armed groups, including lifting of multilateral and bilateral targeted sanctions. This coalition is fighting against UPC, which refused to join “the Coalition,” and anti-Balaka forces. See N. Dukhan, ‘Splintered Warfare: Alliances, affiliations, and agendas of armed factions and politico-military groups in the Central African Republic’, The Enough Project, 10 August 2017.

Mouvement Patriotique Centrafricain (MPC)

The Mouvement Patriotique Centrafricain (MPC) is another breakaway group, created in 2015 after shifting from ex-Séléka. Under the leadership of Mahamat al-Khatim and Idriss Ahmed El-Bachar (who are Chadian Arabs), it has strongholds in the northern part of the country bordering Chad, notably in Moyen-Sido, Kabo, and Kaga-Bandoro. MPC has responded to Noureddine Adam’s invitation and has joined “the Coalition” since 2016. However, as other members of “the Coalition,” it maintains its identity and strong holds, while sharing common political goals with FPRC and other members of “the Coalition.” See N. Dukhan, ‘Splintered Warfare: Alliances, affiliations, and agendas of armed factions and politico-military groups in the Central African Republic’, The Enough Project, 10 August 2017.  Confrontations between MPC and anti-Balaka armed group to gain control of Batangafo intensified towards the end of 2017, leading to the near destruction of Ouogo and Kambakota villages and displacement of 2000 civilians on 19 and 21 December, respectively. In coalition with FPRC and anti-Balaka – Mokom wing, MPC also fights with UPC and against extension of governmental presence in its strongholds. See Human Rights Council, ‘Report of the Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in the Central African Republic’, A/HRC/36/64, 28 July 2017.

Union for Peace in the Central African Republic (UPC)

The Union for Peace, dominated by Muslims from the Fulani ethnic group, joined Séléka armed groups in 2014. However, the alliance had a short life: in the same year, the group separated from FPRC when Noureddine Adam, leader of FPRC, demanded independence for Central African Republic’s predominantly Muslim north. The UPC is led by its president and commander, Ali Darassa Mahamant, and has been confronting FPRC in Ouaka and Hautte-Kotto to extend its territorial control. Currently, its stronghold is in Alindao, after it left Bambari in February 2017 upon the request of MINUSCA. See Global Security, ‘Union for Peace in the Central African Republic’; Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED), ‘Central African Republic – June 2017 Update’; N. Dukhan, ‘Splintered Warfare: Alliances, affiliations, and agendas of armed factions and politico-military groups in the Central African Republic’, The Enough Project, 10 August 2017; Human Rights Watch, ‘World Report 2018 - Central African Republic: Events of 2017’.

Return, Reclamation and Rehabilitation (3R)

In 2015 a new armed group, Return, Reclamation and Rehabilitation (3R), was created. The group occupies Ouham Pende region near Cameroon border areas, under the command of a self-proclaimed General, Sidiki Abass. It aims to protect Peul community from attacks by anti-Balaka militia. See Terrorism Research and Analysis Consortium, ‘Return, Reclamation and Rehabilitation’; ‘Dozens of civilians killed in CAR violence - HRW’, Al Jazeera, 2 May 2017. In December 2017, 3R armed group signed a cessation of hostilities agreement with anti-Balaka armed group in Bouar, which was facilitated by national authorities supported by MINUSCA. See ‘Report of the Secretary General on Central African Republic’, S/2018/125, 15 February 2018.

Anti-Balaka armed group

In Spring 2013, a loosely affiliated armed self-defence militia formed the anti-Balaka armed group in order to defend its communities from Séléka’s violence and Djotodia’s rule. Its members are comprised of Christian and Animist believers, as well as by former members of central African Republic’s army. See B. Sixdenier, ‘The who’s who in Central African Republic’, Medium, 15 June 2017. During the end of 2013 and the beginning of 2014, the anti-Balaka armed group became more organized with the intent to wipe out Muslims from Central African Republic. Nevertheless, currently it is a coalition of smaller armed groups (wings) operating in various parts of the country. Although there is no clear information about the internal structure of this group, there is no reported in-fighting amongst them. Some of the leaders include Colonel Goumou Passy, Alfred Yekatom, Habib Stoussou, Abdoulaye Hissene, Maxime Mokom and Jean Francis Diandi nicknamed “Ramazani” in Bria (he was arrested by MINUSCA on 22 March 2018). The anti-Balaka armed group fights against FPRC, UPC, the government, and MINUSCA from its strongholds in central and eastern CAR. See J.P. Scholz, A. Kriesch, ‘The forgotten war in the Central African Republic’, DW Akademie, 30 April 2017; ‘Who are the anti-balaka of CAR?’, IRIN, 12 February 2014; Global Security, ‘Anti Balaka’Amongst the various wings of the anti-Balaka group, the Maxime Mokom wing is associated with former president Bozize and has joined FPRC to establish the “Alliance of the Nairobists” in 2015 with the aim to increase their negotiating power and leverage against the government and the international community. However, the alliance was frustrated when they were not allowed to participate in the 2015 elections. In 2016, the Mokom wing joined “the Coalition,” thus confirming its alliance with FPRC, RPRC, and MPC. See N. Dukhan, ‘Splintered Warfare: Alliances, affiliations, and agendas of armed factions and politico-military groups in the Central African Republic’, The Enough Project, 10 August 2017.

Generally, the majority of armed groups in Central African Republic have signed various ceasefire and peace agreements, both amongst themselves and with the government. Nevertheless, they have yet to be respected and implemented. In June 2017, all armed groups, with the exception of 3R, met in Rome under the aegis of the Community of Sant’Egidio, and signed the Sant’Egidio Agreement, which provided for an immediate ceasefire. However, the day after the signing of the agreement, nearly 100 people were reportedly killed in Bria in clashes between FPRC and anti-Balaka fighters. Violence continues on the ground, potentially casting doubt on the credibility of this agreement. See Human Rights Council, ‘Report of the Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in the Central African Republic’, A/HRC/36/64, 28 July 2017.

United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA)

In 2012, following the escalation of violence in Central African Republic, the Economic Community for Central African Countries (ECCAS) increased the troop strength of the Mission de Consolidation de la Paix en Centrafriques (MICOPAX), which had been active in the country between 2008 and 2013. See ‘Repertoire of the Practice of the Security Council: The situation in Central African Republic’, 18th Supplement, 2012-2013; M. Welz, ‘Briefing: Crisis in the Central African Republic and the international response’, 113 African Affairs 453 (2014) 601. On 19 July 2013, the AU Peace and Security Council then decided to deploy a peace enforcement mission to replace MICOPAX, which was struggling to deescalate the ongoing violence. This mission was authorized by the UNSC and, on December 2013, MICOPAX was rehatted to International Support Mission for CAR (MISCA). The latter included 3,500 uniformed personnel (2,475 for the military component and 1,025 for the police component) and 152 civilians. It was mandated to protect civilians, restore order, create space for humanitarian assistance, and support the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) and security sector reform (SSR) processes. See Security Council Resolution 2127, S/RES/2127 (2013), 5 December 2013.

On September 2014, MISCA was officially transformed into a UN peacekeeping mission, United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Central African Republic (MINUSCA), with similar formation and mandate, but with 4000 more troop strength. Since its deployment, MINUSCA’s mandate has been renewed annually and currently it comprises of 12,789 uniformed personnel and 1390 civilian personnel. See MINUSCA, ‘Facts and figures’.

MINUSCA was established by Security Council Resolution 2149 (2014), mandated to support the implementation of the transition process, including efforts in favour of the extension of State authority and preservation of territorial integrity. Accordingly, some of the initial measures of MINUSCA encompassed the restoration of public authority, including retaking of public buildings that were occupied by armed groups and escorting humanitarian and commercial convoys along the main trade route from Cameroon. In 2016 MINUSCA supported the conduct of nationwide election, which was a major step to establish a permanent government after three years of transitional government in Central African Republic. See Security Council Resolution 2149, S/RES/2149 (2014), 10 April 2014.

Furthermore, MINUSCA forces have engaged in military operations against armed groups in order to extend the presence of the government throughout the country. Since the Central African Armed Forces (FACA) are not yet fully re-established, MINUSCA occasionally carries out joint operations. In September 2017 members of MINUSCA forces responded to attacks by Retour, Réclamation et Réhabilitation (3R) in Bocaranga (Ouham–Pende perfecture). Similarly, MINUSCA launched an operation in cooperation with FACA in January 2018 in Paoua, after clashes between Mouvement national pour la libération de la Centrafrique (MNLC, one of the smaller splinter armed groups from ex-Séléka) and Révolution et Justice (RJ) resulted in 4 civilian deaths and displaced around 1,200. Incidents have also occurred in Berberati, South West CAR, in April 2018. See UNSC Meeting Records, 8187th meeting, S/PV.8187, 22 February 2018; F. Kelly, ‘Four killed as UN peacekeepers and militia clash’, The Defense Post, 24 April 2018.

MINUSCA has been target of attacks from various armed groups. For instance, in April 2018 local defence militia operating in the PK5 area attacked peacekeeping troops with heavy weapons and rockets. See ‘MINUSCA condemns fresh attack against peacekeepers in Bangui’, MINUSCA Press Release, 10 April 2018; ‘UN peacekeepers attacked by Central Africa armed group’, ENCA, 1 April 2018. During the same month, MINUSCA suffered another attack in northeast of Bambari, in Ouaka prefecture, by members of the anti-Balaka armed group. See ‘MINUSCA condemns losses of life overnight attack in Tagbara’, MINUSCA Press Release, 3 April 2018. Furthermore, on 04 May 2018 MINUSCA forces neutralized FPRC stronghold between Ndomété and Dékoa. During the attack they were able to arrest some FPRC members and seize weapons. See ‘La MINUSCA neutralise une tentative d’infiltration de element du FPRC a Dekoa’, MINUSCA Press Release, 5 May 2018. On 10 May 2018, in an ambush on the road between Rafaï and Bangassou, anti-Balaka elements allegedly kidnapped and killed Cambodian and Moroccan peacekeepers in the deadliest attack against a MINUSCA convoy since the Mission’s establishment. Five United Nations peacekeepers were killed and 10 were injured. See MINUSCA, ‘Bangassou et Rafai : dans une situation aussi difficile, il faut éviter les manipulations, dit le commandant de la force’, 31 March 2018.

Overall, since its deployment MINUSCA has been attacked in various parts of the country by different armed groups, resulting in 73 fatalities. The attacks against the UN peacekeeping troops have met the condemnation of the UN. Notably, Secretary-General Antonio Guterres strongly condemned the most recent attack allegedly perpetrated by the anti-Balaka group against a convoy of the United Nations peacekeeping mission in the Central African Republic, in which one peacekeeper from Egypt was killed and three others were injured. See ‘The UN Chief strongly Condemns the attack that kills peacekeepers in Central African Republic’, UN News, 27 November 2017; ‘Targeted attack results death of MINUSCA peacekeeper in Bria’, MINUSCA Press Release, 4 December 2017.

France

In 2013, Operation Sangaris was deployed to assist and strengthen the African Union mission (MISCA) in establishing public order and protecting civilians. Although President Bozize asked for France’s assistance before he was ousted, Operation Sangaris commenced its operation after the authorization of the Security Council under Resolution 2127. The first contingent of about 1,200 French marines, paratroopers, and engineering units were engaging at the front line during the height of the conflict between ex-Séléka and anti-Balaka armed groups. In cooperation with MISCA, the French forces were able to repel these armed groups from Bangui and support the restoration of authority of the Central African transitional government. In addition, the French combat troops had secured the route from Bangui to Cameroon between February and September 2014, until it was handed over to MINUSCA. See Security Council Resolution 2127, S/RES/2127 (2013), 5 December 2013.

Between 5 December 2013 and 1 July 2016, around 15,000 French troops had been deployed, on rotational basis, in order to support MISCA and later on MINUSCA. During this period French troops have repelled attacks from various armed groups and took control over Bambari, Boda, Bossangoa and PK12 in Bangui, which were later on transferred to MINUSCA.  On October 2016, France decided to close down its operation in Central African Republic and withdraw its troops. See ‘Dossier de presse Operation Sangaris’, France, Ministère de la Défense, 13 July 2016; ‘France ends Sangaris military operation in CAR’, BBC, 31 October 2016.

The government of Central African Republic considers that the country is in armed conflict. In its a recent address to the UN Security Council, president Faustin Archange Touadéra stated that ‘the conflict between the armed groups is causing civilian losses and the population is in dire situation due to many years in conflict.’ See UNSC Meeting Records, 7901st meeting, 16 March 2017.

The UN Security Council referred to the armed conflict between the ex-Séléka and anti-Balaka in its resolution authorizing the deployment of MINUSCA under Chapter VII UN Charter in 2014. See Security Council Resolution 2149, S/RES/2149 (2014), 10 April 2014. The classification fo the situation as armed conflcit was reproduced in nearly all follow up resolutions renewing MINUSCA mandate. In 2017, the UNSC called on ‘all parties to the armed conflict, including ex Séléka and anti Balaka elements, to end all violations and abuses committed.’ See Security Council Resoltuion 2387, S/RES/2387 (2017), 15 November 2017.

Moreover, in 2018 Human Rights Watch reported that war crimes continue to be committed with impunity by various armed groups in Central African Republic. The focus on war crimes is an indication that the organization classifies the situation as an armed conflict. However, the report does not expressly classify the conflict as non-international in nature. See Human Rights Watch, ‘World Report 2018 - Central African Republic: Events of 2017’.

All parties to the conflict are bound by Article 3 common to the 1949 Geneva Conventions that provides for the minimum standard to be respected and requires humane treatment without adverse distinction of all persons not or no longer taking active part in hostilities. It prohibits murder, mutilation, torture, cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment, hostage taking and unfair trials.

Furthermore, all parties are bound by customary international humanitarian law applicable to non-international armed conflict. Customary international law consists of unwritten rules that come from a general practice accepted as law. Based on an extensive study, the International Committee of the Red Cross maintains a database on customary international humanitarian law.

In addition to international humanitarian law, international human rights law continues to apply during times of armed conflict. Central African Republic is a party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights as well as the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Under human rights law, the territorial state has an obligation to prevent and to investigate alleged violations, including by non-state actors. Non-state armed groups are increasingly considered to be bound by international human rights law if they exercise de facto control over some areas.

State parties

Non-state parties

  • Séléka is a coalition of armed groups in Northern Central African Republic, which claimed to be aggrieved by the government of Central African Republic’s continued marginalization of the Muslim north region. This armed group was fighting against the government between 2012 and mid-2013. After overthrowing the government and obtaining power in March 2013, a number of former members of the Séléka formed the ex-Séléka group, which engaged in hostilities against the anti-Balaka armed group. After having been pushed out of its stronghold in Bangui, the ex-Séléka armed group has disintegrated into many armed groups, which are fighting amongst themselves for wider territorial control. See N. Dukhan, ‘Splintered Warfare: Alliances, affiliations, and agendas of armed factions and politico-military groups in the Central African Republic’, The Enough Project, 10 August 2017.
  • The Popular Front for the Renaissance in Central African Republic (FPRC) is established by former ex-Séléka armed group members under the leadership of Noureddine Adam. It is formed by a coalition of rebels dominated by Muslims from the Gula and Runga communities and has stronghold in Birao, Ndélé, Bria, Kaga-Bandoro, in central and north eastern CAR. See Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED), ‘Central African Republic – June 2017 Update’.
  • Mouvement Patriotique Centrafricain (MPC) is another breakaway group from ex-Séléka armed group established in 2015. MPC exercises control over Moyen-Sido, Kabo, Kaga-Bandoro in northern part of the country bordering Chad. Since 2016, MPC has joined “the Coalition,” established and led by Noureddine Adam from FPRC. See N. Dukhan, ‘Splintered Warfare: Alliances, affiliations, and agendas of armed factions and politico-military groups in the Central African Republic’, The Enough Project, 10 August 2017.
  • Union for Peace in the Central African Republic (UPC) was one of the armed groups which joined the ex-Séléka. However, it splintered from it in 2014. It is dominated by Muslims from the Fulani ethnic group and currently controls Alindao sub-prefecture, located in Basse-Kotto prefecture. This group has refused to join “the Coalition” and it is thus in constant confrontation with it. See N. Dukhan, ‘Splintered Warfare: Alliances, affiliations, and agendas of armed factions and politico-military groups in the Central African Republic’, The Enough Project, 10 August 2017.
  • Return, Reclamation and Rehabilitation (3R) armed group was established in 2015, claiming to protect Peul community from attacks by anti-Balaka militia. The group occupies Ouham Pende region, near Cameroon border. See Terrorism Research and Analysis Consortium, ‘Return, Reclamation and Rehabilitation’.
  • The anti-Balaka armed group is a self-defence militia coalition, which is established in response to attacks by Séléka/ex-Séléka armed group in 2013. Its members are mainly Christian and Animist individuals who took up arms to defend their community. Furthermore, it includes some former members Central African Republic armed forces.  See J.P. Scholz, A. Kriesch, ‘The forgotten war in the Central African Republic’, DW Akademie, 30 April 2017; ‘Who are the anti-balaka of CAR?’, IRIN, 12 February 2014; Global Security, ‘Anti Balaka’.
Last updated: Tuesday 16th October 2018