Mozambique is party to parallel non-international armed conflicts (NIACs) against respectively splinter groups of RENAMO and the so-called group Al-Shabab.
Parallel NIACs are taking place in Mozambique:
- Between 1977 and 1992, Mozambique has been torn by the so-called Mozambiquan civil war, fought by between Marxist Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO), which was ruling the country at the time, Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO), namely anti-communist insurgents, and a number of smaller groups. In 2013, new tensions emerged between FRELIMO and RENAMO as the latter withdrew from the peace agreement signed in 1992. This led to a new NIAC. While RENAMO and the government signed a peace agreement in 2019, a number of members of the opposition group refused to recognize the agreement and have been carrying out armed attacks against state forces. Since then, a number of RENAMO splinter groups, such as the RENAMO Military Junta, have been fighting against Mozambiquan troops.
- Since the end of 2017, Mozambique has been engaging in a NIAC against the so-called Al-Shabab group, affiliated to the Islamic State (IS) in the northern part of the country, notably in Cabo Delgado region. The group has conducted military operations in Tanzania as well.